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Gender Identity Disorder


Gender Identity Disorder 性同一性障害とは?
Gender -- being male or female -- is a basic element that helps make up an individual's personality and sense of self. Gender identity disorder is a condition in which a male or female feels a strong identification with the opposite sex.
A person with this disorder often experiences great discomfort regarding his or her actual anatomic gender. People with gender identity disorder may act and present themselves as members of the opposite sex and may express a desire to alter their bodies. The disorder affects an individual's self-image, and can impact the person's mannerisms, behavior, and dress. Individuals who are committed to altering their physical appearance through cosmetics, hormones and, in some cases, surgery are known as transsexuals.
What Causes Gender Identity Disorder? 原因は?
The exact cause of gender identity disorder is not known, but several theories exist. These theories suggest that the disorder may be caused by genetic (chromosomal) abnormalities, hormone imbalances during fetal and childhood development, defects in normal human bonding and child rearing, or a combination of these factors.
How Common Is Gender Identity Disorder? この障害の頻度は?
Gender identity disorder is a rare disorder that affects children and adults. It can be evident in early childhood. In fact, most people recognize that they have a gender identity problem before they reach adolescence. The disorder occurs more often in males than in females.
What Are the Symptoms of Gender Identity Disorder? 症状は?
Children with gender identity disorder often display the following symptoms:
Expressed desire to be the opposite sex (including passing oneself off as the opposite sex and calling oneself by an opposite sex name). 反対性になりたい願望を強く出すようになる。(反対性になりすましたり反体性の名前で自分を呼んだりすることなど)
Disgust with their own genitals (Boys may pretend not to have a penis. Girls may fear growing breasts and menstruating and may refuse to sit when urinating. They also may bind their breasts to make them less noticeable.) 自分の生殖器に嫌悪感を持つようになる。(男子はペニスがないふりをする。女子は胸が大きくなることやメンスになることを恐れたり排尿のとき座ってするのを拒んだりする。また胸が目立たないようにするためにきつく縛ったりする)
How Is Gender Identity Disorder Treated? 治療は?
Individual and family counseling usually is recommended to treat children with gender identity disorder. Counseling focuses on treating the associated problems of depression and anxiety and on improving self-esteem. Therapy also aims at helping the individual function as well as possible within his or her biological gender. 個人的、家族によるカウンセリングが、この障害を持つ子供には勧められる。カウンセリングはうつ症状や不安症状を改善することや自尊心の改善に重きが置かれる。治療はまた生物学的性のなかでいかにうまく本人がやっていけるか手助けすることを目指す。
Counseling is recommended for adults, as is involvement in a support group. Some transsexual adults request hormone and surgical treatments to suppress their biological sex characteristics and to achieve those of the opposite sex. The surgical alteration of a person's sex is called gender reassignment surgery (sometimes referred to as a "sex change" operation). Because this surgery is major and irreversible, candidates for surgery must undergo an extensive evaluation and transition period.
by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-27 23:28 | 科学英語 | Trackback | Comments(0)

You are what you eat.

by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-26 22:38 | 科学英語 | Trackback | Comments(0)

Lingua franca

例えば、「久しぶり」という意味の、Long time no see.は、I haven’t seen you for a long time. の代わりによく使われる。
また、実際の会話ではIt makes sense(意図が伝わる、わかる)であれば非文法的な英語であっても十分コミュニケーションできる。
鍵をつけたまま車のドアをロックしてしまったようなとき、Keys in, me out.なんていう英語が通じたという言う話を聞いたことがある。正式には、I locked my key in my car.
ホテルの部屋で同じようなことをすれば、I locked myself out.といえばいい。

笑い話にもなっている英語がある。喫茶店でコーヒーを注文するときに、日本語の感覚で、I am coffee. She is tea. なんていってもかろうじてわかってもらえるが、その後
OK, Mr. Coffee. なんて言われかねない。I’d like coffee. でいいだろう。
by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-25 20:59 | 英語学習 | Trackback | Comments(0)

両方とも状況にもよるが、一般的には、「いただきます」も「ごちそうさま」もThank you. で済ますことができる。
I really enjoyed the meal. I enjoyed the dinner very much. I really enjoyed everything.などを付け加えることもできる。
これもしっくりくる訳があるわけではない。「行ってきます」I’m leaving. See you. See you later. 「ただいま」は I’m home. I’m back now. といったところだろうか。

by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-24 23:25 | 英語学習 | Trackback | Comments(0)




A little language goes a long way.という表現がある。「ちょっとした言葉がたいへん役に立つこともある」というくらいの意味です。海外に出ればちょっとした表現で命拾いすることもあれば、対人関係がスムーズに行くこともある。単語や表現を積み木のように積み上げていきましょう。
by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-24 00:22 | 英語学習 | Trackback | Comments(0)


日本語ではよく使う「お疲れ様」だが、英語版のYou must be tired. は使い方によっては誤解される表現になる。
A: You must be tired.
B: Not really.
A: Do I look tired?
B: No, not at all. You look fine.
A: ・・・・・・・・

You did a good job. Thank you so much. Good job! I appreciate your work.などを状況に応じて使うほうがいいようだ。というのも、「疲れた・・・・」と言ったらそうでしょう「お疲れさま」という日本的社会ではなくて、英語圏の社会はむしろ疲れていることを隠す社会、弱みを見せない社会だからではないだろうか?相手をおもんぱかって労をねぎらう社会のほうが気楽でcomfortableに思う。
by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-23 07:59 | 英語 | Trackback | Comments(0)


A Win-Win Situation
最近日本語の中にもウイン・ウインという言葉が聞かれるようになってきた。形容詞で「双方にとって満足できる」という意味である。今話題の普天間の移設問題も簡単に言えばwin-win 交渉を日米で考えないと日米関係はガタガタになるだろう。日本の政権が変わったからとか、日本側の負担が大きすぎるとかいった理由を主張するだけではなかなかまとまらないだろう。もちろん国内における決定においてもそうだろう。win-winに関する有名な逸話があるので挙げてみよう。

There is a legendary story about a brother and a sister squabbling over some leftover pie, each wanting the bigger piece. Just as the brother wins control of knife, a parent arrives. The parent says, “I don’t care who cuts that pie, but whoever does has to give the other one the right to select the piece they want.” Naturally the boy cuts the slab into two equal pieces.
The underlined moral is that there are many situations where the needs of each side are not really in opposition. If the focus shifts from defeating each other to defeating the problem, everyone can benefit. This is win-win negotiating.
by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-21 20:36 | 英語 | Trackback | Comments(0)

Be Japan!

マイケル・ムーア監督がAERA English誌とのインタビューに答えてたいへんいいことを言っているので取り上げてみたい。
Q:Japan is struggling as well. Do you have any comments on our situation?
A: I’ve often spoken about and admired Japan in my books and movies. Now you are starting to get some of the problems we have in America. There are more crimes and more murders. I remember as a young man, the thing about Japan was that it would be shameful for a company to lay people off. Is that correct? I mean that’s the way it used to be. I love being an American. So the question I am constantly posing to Americans is why we treat each other this way when no other civilized country believes that they should punish you because you get sick. Or why do they punish your factory which is going out of business. So to answer your question, as much as I love America, quit being like us. Be Japan. Be the Japan you created in 1945. Japan valued education. Japan does not throw you out of work. Japan said we will never invade another country, and we will not allow our army and our forces to go and support anybody who invades other country. Please don’t take personal offense. But you asked me what I would say to the Japanese people, because I’ve spoken so highly of how I think you structure your society. A society of peace and respect. So you started to go down another road. My humble plea is to come off that road with a new prime minister. And go down the road that we used to admire.

by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-21 00:09 | 英語 | Trackback | Comments(0)



Arriving by ambulance doesn’t mean you’ll get a red-carpet escort into the ER. You’ll get triaged like everyone else, and if you’re not that sick or injured, you’re going to wait.
Connie Meyer, RN, paramedic

“Never tell an ER nurse, ‘All I have is this cut on my finger. Why can’t someone just look at it?’ That just shows you have no idea how the ER actually works.”
Dana Hawkins, RN, Tulsa, Oklahoma

One of our favorite lines is “You can’t fix stupidity.” If you complain of nausea and then eat a bag of chips, that’s what we’re thinking. Joan Somes, RN

まだまだあるがこのくらいにしよう。You can’t fix stupidity.は使える表現かも?!
by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-19 22:35 | 科学英語 | Trackback | Comments(0)


Keiichiro Nagashima, with his back to the wall, recorded the best time for the second run, lapping in 34.87. (スピードスケート男子500mの)長島圭一郎選手は、背水の陣で臨んだ2回目の滑走で、34秒87のトップタイムをたたき出した。(読売新聞夕刊2/18)

with + O + C を使ったwith one’s back to the wallは「 壁を背にして」という文字通りの訳から「背水の陣」という日本語をあてたものである。
Going on strike this time is like fighting with our backs to the wall.
Going on strike this time is like burning our bridges behind us.
This strike is a do-or die effort. 今度のストは背水の陣だ。
burn one’s bridges behind one 通り過ぎた背後の橋を燃やす、つまり引き返せないように燃やすという表現も挙げてある。do-or-dieは必死の覚悟のという意味の形容詞。a do-or-die effortで必死の覚悟の活動(取り組み)となる。
研究社のNew Japanese-English Dictionaryによれば、他にburn one’s boats(ships) , cut off one’s retreatを挙げている。引き返せないように乗ってきた船を燃やす、や退路を遮断するといった発想である。
by attainmentofall8 | 2010-02-18 23:40 | 英語 | Trackback | Comments(0)